15 Jun 2011

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1948

In an effort of the Zionists to expand over the area allotted to them in the 1947 Partition Plan, war broke out.

January
Palestinian guerrilla leader ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini secretly returns to Palestine after ten-year exile to organize resistance to partition.

8 January
First contingent of 330 ALA volunteers arrives in Palestine.

10 January
ALA assault on Jewish settlement of Kefar Szold repulsed with help of British.

14 January
Haganah concludes arms deal with Czechoslovakia for $12,280,000 worth of arms including 24,500 rifles, 5,000 light machine guns, 200 medium machine guns, 54 million rounds of ammunition, 25 Meserschmitts. By end of Mandate at least 10,740 rifles, 1,200 machine guns, 26 field guns, and 11 million rounds of ammunition arrive in Palestine. Rest of arms arrive by end of May.

16 January
British report to UN estimates 1,974 people killed or injured in Palestine from 30 November 1947-10 January 1948.

20 January
British administration announces that predominantly Jewish or Palestinian areas will be gradually handed over to local majority group in every area concerned.

21 and 28 January
Second and third contingents of 360 and 400 ALA irregulars arrive in Palestine.

January-March
JNF leaders encourage evictions from villages of Haifa area Haganah attacks villages near Lake al-Hula. Palmach attacks Negev Bedouin.

16 February
ALA mounts unsuccessful attack on Jewish settlement of Tirat Zvi north of Baysan.

18 February
Haganah calls up men and women aged 25-35 for military service.

24 February
U.S. delegate to UN says Security Council role should be to keep peace in Palestine, not enforce partition. Syrian delegate suggests appointing committee to explore possible Jewish Agency-Arab Higher Committee agreement.

March
Transjordanian prime minister Tawfiq Abu al-Huda secretly meets British foreign secretary Bevin. They agree that Transjordanian forces will enter Palestine at end of Mandate but will restrict themselves to area of Arab state outlined in partition Plan. (Click here to read our response to the Zionist claim that seven Arab armies attempt to annihilate the newly emerging “Jewish State”)

5-7 March
Qawuqji enters Palestine and assumes command of ALA units in Jinin-Nablus-Tulkarm triangle within area allotted to Arab state.

6 March
Haganah declares general mobilization.

10 March
British House of Commons votes to end Mandate on 15 May. Plan Dalet finalized by Haganah. Plan provides for military conquest of area allotted by UN Partition Plan to Jewish state and of substantial Palestinian territories beyond this state’s boundaries. Plan contains a series of interlocking operations.

18 March
President Truman secretly receives Chaim Weizman and pledges support for declaration of Jewish state on May 15.

19-20 March
U.S. delegate asks UN Security Council to suspend action on partition plan and to convene General Assembly special session to work on a trusteeship plan. Arabs accept limited trusteeship and truce if Jews also accept. Jewish Agency rejects trusteeship.

25 March
President Truman calls for immediate truce and says U.S. will share responsibility for temporary trusteeship.

30 March-15 May
Second coastal “clearing” operation carried out by Haganah Alexandroni brigade and other units. Attacks and expulsions drive out almost all Palestinian communities from coastal area from Haifa to Jaffa prior to British withdrawal.

1 April
Delivery of first consignment of Czech arms deal: Ship “Nora” arrives in Haifa from Yugoslavia with 4,500 rifles, 200 light machine guns, 5 million rounds of ammunition. Two hundred rifles, 400 machine guns and further ammunition ferried in by airplane. UN Security Council resolutions call for special session of General Assembly and agree to U.S. proposal for truce to be arranged through Jewish Agency and Arab Higher Committee.

4 April
Haganah launches Plan Dalet.

4-15 April
Battle of Mishmar ha-‘Emeq: ALA repulsed by Haganah from Jewish settlement of Mishmar ha-‘Emeq. Haganah, Carmeli, Alexandroni, and Palmach units occupy villages in Marj ibn ‘Amir.

6-15 April
Operation Nachshon: In first operation of Plan Dalet Haganah Giv’ati Brigade and other units capture villages along Tel Aviv-Jerusalem road from local Palestinian militia.

8 April
‘Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini, charismatic Palestinian militia commander, Jerusalem district, is killed leading counterattack to recover al-Qastal village.

9 April
IZL and Stern Gangs massacre some 250 inhabitants in village of Deir Yasin near Jerusalem.

12 April
General Zionist Council decides to establish independent state in Palestine on 16 May.

13-20 April
Operation Har’el under Plan Dalet launched at conclusion of Operation Nachshon. Villages along Jerusalem road attacked and demolished. All subsequent Haganah operations until 15 May 1948 undertaken within framework of Plan Dalet.

15 April-25 May
Operation Yiftach: Palmach captures Safad from ALA and local militia (9-10 May). Attacks and psychological warfare used to empty villages of eastern Galilee and Galilee panhandle. Operation Matate (Broom) drives out Bedouin and villagers from area south of Rosh Pinna to Jordan River.

16-17 April
Haganah Golani brigade and Palmach units capture Tiberias as it is evacuated by British. Palestinian inhabitants flee.

17 April
Security Council resolution calls for military and political truce.

20 April
U.S. submits Palestine trusteeship plan to UN.

21 April
Operation Misparayim (meaning scissor): British forces suddenly withdraw from Haifa precipitating all-out Haganah dawn offensive against city’s Palestinian population. Offensive accompanied by heavy mortar shelling of Palestinian residential quarters.

22 April
Resistance of local Palestinian militia in Haifa collapses. Haifa’s Palestinian population flees under combined Haganah shelling and ground offensives.

25 April
IZL starts massive mortar shelling of Jaffa’s residential quarters; simultaneously launches ground offensive to cut off northern Manshiyeh quarter from rest of city.

26-30 April
Haganah Har’el and Etzioni brigades launch Operation Yevussi in and around Jerusalem; attack East Jerusalem residential quarter of Shaykh Jarrah but are forced to hand it over to British; capture West Jerusalem residential district of Qatamon from Palestinian irregulars. Flight of Palestinian inhabitants.

27 April-5 May
Operation Chametz: Haganah launches major ground offensive against eastern Jaffa suburbs and neighboring villages to cut off city from its hinterland. Some 50,000 civilians flee under combined IZL and Haganah attacks.

30 April
All Palestinian quarters in West Jerusalem occupied by Haganah and residents driven out.

1 May
The Zionists forces occupied and massacred more than 70 civilians from ‘Ayn al-Zaytun (Safad).

3 May
175-200,000 Palestinian refugees reported to have fled from areas taken by Zionists.

8-16 May
Haganah Har’el and Giv’ati brigades undertake Operation Makkabi. Capture villages on al-Ramla -Latrun road.

9 May-1 June
Operation Barak: Strikes by Haganah Giv’ati and Negev brigades south and West of al-Ramla.

10-15 May
Golani brigade occupies Baysan, attacks villages of Baysan Valley south of Lake Tiberias.

12-14 May
Arrival of second and third Czech arms consignments for Haganah: 5,000 rifles, 1,200 machine guns, 6 million rounds of ammunition.

13 May
Arab Legion, ALA, and local militia attack and capture Jewish settlements of Etzion bloc, retaliating for attacks on Hebron road. Jaffa formally surrenders to Haganah.

13-21 May
Operation Ben-Ami: Carmeli brigade occupies Acre and coastal area north of city .

14 May
Haganah launches Operation Qilshon (Pitchfork), occupying strategic areas in Jerusalem evacuated by British and taking Palestinian residential quarters outside Old City from Arab irregulars.

Haganah launches Operation Schfifon to take Old City of Jerusalem.
State of Israel proclaimed in Tel Aviv at 4:00 P.M.
President Truman recognizes state of Israel.

15 May
British Mandate ends. Declaration of State of Israel comes into effect.

15-17 May
Lebanese regulars cross border and temporarily retake villages of Malikiyya and Qadas from Haganah, but are forced out of fortress of Nabi Yusha’.

15-28 May
Transjordanian Arab Legion troops cross River Jordan and move towards Jerusalem capturing Jewish settlements of Atarot and Newe Ya’aqov north of city (17 May). In Jerusalem, Legion retakes Sheikh Jarrah
quarter (16 May), fails to capture stronghold in Notre Dame monastery (17-25 May), and takes control of Jewish Quarter of Old City (28 May).

On the 23th of May 1948, al-Tantura was perpetrated against 250 civilians and POWs.

15 May-4 June
Iraqi units cross Jordan River, are repulsed from Crusader fortress of Belvoir , and besiege settlement of Gesher for a week. Iraqi regulars move into Nablus-Jinin- Tulkarm triangle 24 May). Haganah advances on Jenin
, evicting villagers (28-31 May); it attacks and briefly occupies Jinin before being repulsed (3-4 June).

15 May-7 June
Egyptian regular troops cross border, move up coast to Isdud and capture Jewish settlements of Yad Mordechai (24 May) and Nitzanim (7 June) in Negev. Another column of Egyptian irregulars moves to Bethlehem linking up with Arab Legion. In battle with IDF (21-25 May), Jewish settlement of Ramat Rachel south of Jerusalem changes hands several times and is finally retained by Jews.

16 May-10 June
Syrian columns advance over border and temporarily capture Jewish settlement of Zeniach (18-20 May), are repulsed from twin settlements of Degania (20 May), and capture settlement of Mishmar ha-Yarden (10 June). Syrians, Lebanese, and ALA recapture Malikiyya (6 June).

16-30 May
IDF Operation Ben-Nun: Israeli Sheva’ and other brigades fail to capture al-Latrun from Arab Legion in attempt to open Jaffa -Jerusalem road, but occupy villages in vicinity.

20 May
UN Security Council appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as its mediator in Palestine.

22 May
UN Security Council resolution calls for ceasefire.

9-10 June
IDF Operation Yoram, launched against Arab legion by Har’el and Yiftach brigades, fails to capture al-Latrun.

11 June-8 July
First Truce.

28-29 June
Count Bernadotte suggests economic, military, and political union of Transjordan and Palestine containing Arab and Jewish states: Negev and central Palestine to go to Arabs; Western Galilee to Jews; Jerusalem to be part of Arab state with administrative autonomy for Jews; Haifa and Jaffa to be free ports and Lydda free airport. Rejected by both sides.

7 July
Security Council calls for prolongation of truce.

7-18 July
IDF Operation Dani: Capture of Lydda and al-Ramla from local militia. Population of both cities expelled. Three or four IDF brigades occupy villages along Jerusalem- Jaffa road and cluster of villages east of Jaffa. Yiftach brigade’s assault on Arab Legion in al-Latrun (17 July) ends with Second Truce.

8-14 July
IDF Operation Dekel: Carmeli and Sheva’ brigades push east and south from Acre, capture Nazareth from ALA under Qawuqji and occupy Lower Galilee.

8-11 July
IDF Operation An-Far: Giv’ati brigade, moving against Egyptians, empties villages south of al-Ramla in an arc between Hebron hills and coast.

9-18 July
IDF Carmeli Brigade fails to recapture the Zionist settlement of Mishmar ha-Yarden, south of Lake Tiberias, that had been occupied by Syrian troops.

15 July
UN Security Council resolution calls on governments and authorities concerned to issue indefinite ceasefire orders to their forces in Palestine to take effect within three weeks.

17 July
IDF Operation Qedem against Old City of Jerusalem is repulsed.

18 July-15 October
Second Truce.

24-26 July
IDF Operation Shoter: Carmeli, Alexandroni, and Golani brigades attack and capture three villages of Little Trianglesouth of Haifa. 16 August-end of September early October Negev and Yiftach brigades attack and expel Bedouins and inhabitants of villages in Negev.

24-28 August
IDF Operation Nikayon (Cleansing): Giv’ati Brigade occupies coastal area west of Yibna and north of Isdud.

16 September
Report by UN mediator Count Bernadotte proposes new partition of Palestine: Arab state to be annexed to Transjordan and to include Negev, al-Ramla and Lydda; Jewish state in all of Galilee; internationalization of Jerusalem; return and compensation of refugees. Rejected by Arab League and Israel.

17 September
UN mediator Count Bernadotte murdered in Jerusalem by Stern Gang. Replaced by his American deputy Ralph Bunche.

15 October-9 November
IDF Operations Yo’av and ha-Har: Negev, Giv’ati, and Yiftach units move against Egyptians to capture Beersheba, Isdud, Majdal, and coastal strip as far as Yad Mordechai, and villages of Hebron Hills. Har’el brigade captures southern Jerusalem corridor.

29-31 October
IDF Operation Hiram: Upper Galilee pocket, held by Qawuqji’s forces, occupied and emptied by Giv’ati, Oded, and Sheva’ brigade troops. Tens of thousands flee. Israeli forces move into southern Lebanon as far as Litani River. On the 29th of October 1948, the IDF commits the famous Safsaf (Safad) massacre in which more than 60 civilians are murdered.

November
IDF Har’el Brigade expels several communities in Jerusalem corridor along border with Transjordanian forces. 4 November UN Security Council resolution calls for withdrawal of forces to positions occupied prior to 14 October and establishment of permanent truce lines.

Second week November-mid 1949
IDF expels inhabitants from villages 5-15 km inside Lebanese border, followed by expulsions from other Galilee villages.

22 December-6 January 1949
Operation Horev launched to drive Egyptians out of southern coastal strip and Negev. Asluj and al-‘Awja captured. Israeli troops move into Sinai until British pressure forces withdrawal. Golani and Har’el brigades attack on Rafah ended by ceasefire (7 January).

27 December
IDF Alexandroni brigade’s attack on isolated Egyptian forces in Faluja pocket is repulsed.

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